From College of Veterinary Medicine,
Texas A&M University
Even though they may be taken for granted, pet vaccinations are vital for your pet. Properly vaccinating your pet is a very important part of pet care because vaccines can potentially help protect your pet against some serious health conditions and diseases. “Vaccines are a suspension of altered microorganisms, which will prevent, lessen or treat disease without causing the disease,”notes Dr. Mark Stickney, clinical assistant professor at the Texas A&M University College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences.
Vaccines are still considered the cornerstone of preventive medicine. Knowing the different types of vaccinations and how they work can help pet caregivers provide optimum care for their animals. “There are live, killed, modified live and recombinant vaccinations,” says Stickney.
“By exposing the immune system to bacteria or viruses that are genetically similar to the ones that will cause disease, the immune system will develop antibodies that protect the body when it encounters theactual disease-causing organism.”
Some pet vaccines can be purchased overthe-counter and given by non-veterinarians, notes Stickney. However, he says there may be quality control issues with vaccines if you are not familiar with the correct way to store and use them. “By law, certain vaccines, like rabies vaccine, can only be given by your veterinarian, ” states Stickney. “Your veterinarian is also the best person to determine which vaccines your pet needs and how frequently they should be administered.” Stickney says: “All puppies and kittens should receive the rabies vaccine at 3 months of age and again at 1 year of age. Vaccination schedules vary depending on the areaof the country you are in and the prevalence of different diseases in that area.” Stickney stresses that puppies should be vaccinated for distemper virus, adenovirus, parvovirus and parainfluenza, and kittens should be vaccinated for viral rhinotracheitis, calicivirus and panleukopenia. Other vaccinations may also be recommended depending on the lifestyle of your pet.
“Booster shots are necessary in puppies and kittens to overcome ëmaternal immunity, ” where the antibodies that the puppies and kittens acquired from their mother provide some protection, but eventually breakdown,” explains Stickney. “Vaccines are ineffective in the face of maternal immunity, and the puppy and kitten series of vaccines is necessary to protect the pet during the time when the maternal immunity disappears. Booster shots remind the immune system of diseases it is supposed to protect against.” Stickney notes that the frequency at which adult animals should receive booster vaccines has been a topic of debate among veterinarians for years. Increasingly, we have evidence that most vaccines do not need to be boosted every year and that the risk of an animal catching certain diseases decreases with age. Your veterinarian will be able to tailor a vaccine protocol to the specific lifestyle of your pet. “No vaccine is 100 percent effective,” Stickney explains. “It is possible to overwhelm any vaccine and immune “system with exposure to enough disease-causing organisms.” Additionally, he notes that adverse reactions can occur from vaccinations. They are most likely to occur the second time an animal receives a vaccine. They usually occur within minutes to six hours of vaccination. “There are two types of reactions commonly seen, anaphylactic and delayed hypersensitivity,” explains Stickney. “Delayed hypersensitivity reactions are more common and less serious. The pet becomes itchy, and the face and ears swell. These reactions can usually be treated with antihistamines. “Anaphylactic reactions are less common, but serious and life-threatening,” adds Stickney. “The animal rapidly collapses and goes into shock. Epinephrine and intravenous fluids are necessary to treat the animal.
“Stickney notes that if your pet ever had an allergic reaction to a vaccine, it is important to let your veterinarian know. Even pets that are allergic to a specific vaccine typically have no problems if they are treated with antihistamines before vaccinations. Remember, vaccines are health products that signal protective immune responses in your pet and your veterinarian can best guide you in the use and scheduling of vaccinations for your pet.
Pet Talk is a service of the College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University. Stories can be viewed on the Web at http://tamunews.tamu.edu.
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From the Feb. 10-16, 2010 issue